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2. On the political struggles between Pennsylvania's Proprietary and Quaker parties, see chapter 53.
3. To the best of the editors' ability, McCullough's diary entries have been rearranged in chronological order, with ellipses indicating that entries have been reordered. This is an abridged rendition of the original diary: entries that were largely undecipherable, had little or no contextual significance, or predated 1748 or postdated 1758 have been omitted. In the original manuscript, the earliest and latest entries are dated 1745 and 1767. However, the overwhelming majority of diary entries are dated 1749-1758 and are reprinted here. ¶The rows of numbers and alphabetical letters at the beginning of the text constitute McCullough's own key to the code that he employed sporadically. Discerning readers will note that McCullough used his code most consistently to record the matings or “bulling” of his cows, but whether he did so out of prudishness or because he perhaps utilized the services of his neighbors' bulls surreptitiously, without their owners' consent or reimbursement, can only be conjectured.
4. 3172s 7c C464gh h3s h18d 18d p28 38 h48 t4 728d 3f 7y p28 w292 1 63t26 b2tt29 3 C456d 72: Iames mc Colagh his hand and pen in hop<e> to mend if my pen were a litel better I Could me<nd>.
5. peas: i.e., pace (also peaces, peaceses, paces “paces” below).
6. Log: “about three quarters of a pint” (OED).
7. MacCullough's lists, here and later in the diary, of biblical passages, names, and stories suggest that, for him and other eighteenth-century Ulster Presbyterians, the Bible not only was spiritually inspirational and even historically accurate but also provided a series of examples, types, or analogies that paralleled and could guide contemporary, individual behavior.
8. 1 Chronicles 18:22: “Now therefore, behold, the Lord hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of these thy prophets, and the Lord hath spoken evil against thee.”
9. Hebrews 6:17: “Wherein God, willing more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath.”
10. 2 Samuel 21:20: “And there was yet a battle in Gath, where was a man of great stature, that had on every hand six fingers, and on every foot six toes, four and twenty in number; and he also was born to the giant.”
11. 2 Kings 13:21: “And it came to pass, as they were burying a man, that behold, they spied a band of men; and they cast the man into the sepulchre of Elisha: and when the man was let down, and touched the bones of Elisha, he revived, and stood up on his feet.”
12. Judges 9:53: “And a certain woman cast a piece of a millstone upon Abimelech's head, and all to brake his skull.”
13. Zechariah 9:9: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.”
14. Zechariah 13:7: “Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts: smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered: and I will turn mine hand upon the little ones.”
15. McCullough lists the months according to the Old Style dating, by which March 25 was the first day of the new year. The British empire's official conversion to the New Style occurred in 1752; at the same time the Julian Calendar was replaced by the more accurate Gregorian, which added eleven days to the Julian reckoning. The shift from Old to New Style explains the dating of some of McCullough's diary entries as, for example, March 1750/51 and 1751/52.
16. The spelling of some of the months in this list indicates Scots pronounciation: Apriel [upreyl], Agust [aaagust], Jenuary and Jeneary/Jenewry hereafter [jeni(w)eri], feberwary [febuweri].
17. on<e>: on is the more frequent spelling of one in the ms., but because its formal identity to the preposition on is distracting to the reader, the editors have normalized to the modern spelling throughout. Conversely, the preposition on is often spelled one in the letters, reflecting the Scots pronunciation (rhymes with own).
18. John ma Cullogh: James McCullough's eldest son.
19. fadom: fathom (six feet; Scots form).
20. wi<d>th: for the loss of [d] in the cluster [dth] see John Craig's breath “breadth” (chapter 46).
21. Alexander elder to: Most of the entries in McCullough's diary can be classified into two broad categories: (1) narrative and (2) commercial. The first type records events, while the second lists transactions involving goods, services, and money. The second category is by far the more numerous and falls into three subtypes, as follows: ¶1. Notations of money or goods received (eight instances), e.g., Receved ten Shillings from Joseph Holland for Corn November ye 27th. ¶2. Notations of accounts payable or disbursements (14 instances), e.g., I ow<e> 7s and on<e> peny to James friers vendo (i.e., vendue “sale”), Jenewary the 12 to one gallon and on<e> half of melases——3s-9p. ¶3. Notations of accounts receivable (91 instances). These are mostly expressed in terms of a formula: NAME OF DEBTOR (+ to)+GOODS/SERVICE (+ AMOUNT DUE) (+ DATE). The parentheses here indicate an optional component and the italics indicate a moveable component. E.g., Agust the——16——1749 James Frier—to—63 yeards of Linne<n> Woven…on<e> pound eleven Shillings and Six pence, and feberwary ye 19 1752 patrick borns to on<e> half bushel of Corn. This formula continues in use today—minus the archaic to (see OED, s.v.) but otherwise unchanged in form and content—as the standard format for accounts receivable in bookkeeping entries, with the specific shape: Date+Name of debtor+Goods/service+Amount due. ¶It is clear from a reading of the accounts receivable entries in McCullough's diary, as well as the notations of goods and money received, that besides being a farmer he was a craftsman and businessman, primarily a bespoke weaver (the very large amounts of cloth involved in the various transactions alone support the conclusion that McCullough was selling woven cloth rather than buying for his own needs) but also a general provisioner, hardware merchant, and (not least) moneylender. The importance of weaving for sale in McCullough's economy is seen in his anxiety to conceal the expensive and hard-to-replace parts of his loom from marauding Indians. McCullough's business activities and the products involved, as mentioned in his diary (there were probably others) are as follows. Weaving: linen, bagging, shirting, linsey-wolsey, girthing, woolen cloth, hickory, blankets, tow cloth, bed coverings, winding (or winnowing) cloth. Produce: rye, potatoes, onions, corn, buckwheat, oats, butter, pork, straw. Hardware: buckles, backbands, mattocks. Services: moneylending, “bulling,” fulling, farm labor, pasturing. Outfitting: wallets, hats, shoes.
22. Ray: i.e., rye; the spelling is archaic (early Scots) and is seen mainly in a small number of monosyllables that rhyme with “eye” (e.g. pay, way, now usually spelled pey, wey, like hey “hay”).
23. mor: i.e., more; in bookkeeping style “in addition, plus.” Used optionally in multiple entries of accounts receivable to introduce the second and subsequent items (mostly replaced by item, itself now quite obsolete). E.g. John mc Collogh to 40 yeards of Linin more——43 yeards of bagin mor——15 yeards of lincey more——72 yeards girthing. The use of more and item (and both together) have a long pedigree; see Muriel St. Clare Byrne, ed., The Lisle Letters, vol. 6 (Chicago, 1981), no. 387 (from 1535): first vj pair of hosen…item ij caps…more a yard and a half frisado (“fine frieze”).… However, McCullough's employment of the form more betrays some education; one expects the Scots form mair, as found for example in the Glasgow burgh records of 1589 (OED, s.v. more): item fyvetene schillingis for the price of ane hogheid item mair twentie sex schillingis viijd. for ane lang courchay.…
24. 63 yeards of Linnen Woven: “the weaving of 63 yeards of linen.” This formula, which occurs very frequently in McCullough's diary and is probably a bookkeeping cliché, corresponds closely to the Latin formula exemplified by ab urbe condita, literally “since the city founded,” i.e., “since the foundation of the city.” The spelling yeards indicates Scots pronounciation (yerdz); see yerds hereafter.
25. bagin (below also baging): i.e., bagging (a coarse woven fabric used to make bags).
26. lincy (below also lincey): i.e., linsey or linsey-woolsey “a coarse, sturdy fabric made of wool and linen (or cotton).”
27. Stript: i.e., striped.
28. shirtin: i.e., shirting “cloth used to make shirts.”
29. vendo (below also vendou, vendu): i.e., vendue “sale of goods, especially by auction.”
30. a 11 - pence: i.e., “a leven” (=eleven) pence.
31. 31725 7c C4664ch: Iames mc Colloch.
32. girthing (hereafter also girth web): woven material used to make horse girths.
33. pretes: i.e., praties; this and its many variants are the most common designations for “potato” in Hiberno-English, as well as in the speech of Scotland and the north of England.
34. inins: i.e., inions “onions” (Scots form).
35. Dines mc fall: i.e., Denis McFall.
36. Peter Crall: Peter Craul, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Antrim township, Cumberland Co.
38. Chirly to bull: Chirly (Shirley), one of McCullough's cows, was sent to and mated with a bull that probably belonged to one of McCullough's wealthier neighbors, although later McCullough's own farm seems to have been able to provide this service (see herefter Robert Mc C<a>rrs Whit hefer did take bul may ye 28th 1775).
39. the Jun ms.
40. hall: i.e., haul.
41. thrush: Scots past tense of thresh.
42. Rept: i.e., reaped (rhymes with gaped).
43. fother: fodder “cattle feed” (general Hiberno-English form).
44. had don: was finished; see chapter 65, n. 20.
45. Wolling: i.e., wollen (any cloth or fabric made of wool).
46. got in: gathered in, secured (the harvest), “saved” (in Irish usage).
47. thomas montgomrey: Thomas Montgomery, in 1743 a tax collector in Hopewell township, Cumberland Co.
48. chaker: i.e., chequer or checker “a fabric with a checkered pattern”; also=checkery “checked cloth.”
49. 9-2: sequences of two numbers of the pattern x-y or x y are to be read “x shillings, y pence.” Whenever this is not the case, the exception will be noted. Sequences of three numbers of the pattern x-y-z (or x y-z or x y z) are to be read “x pounds, y shillings, z pence.”
50. wisted: worsted “a smooth compact yarn made from long wool fibres used especially for firm napless fabrics and knitting.” Wisted is an Ulster variant of the more common Scots form worset.
51. camrick: i.e., cambric “a fine thin white linen fabric.” The spelling shows the Scots preservation of the cluster [mr]; see timmer “timber.”
52. green cloth: i.e., green cloth or greencloth “a kind of linen.”
53. melases: molasses; occurs also below as meloses (transposed spelling of “moleses”).
54. I did begin…: the sentence reproduces Irish syntax exactly (Irish pattern: BEGIN+to+[Object+to+Verb]=McCullough's sentence: I-did-begin+to+[the-great-Swamp+to+clear]), but it is difficult to understand why McCullough would resort to such syntax, when he otherwise (naturally) employed the English and Scots pattern (e.g., the foregoing I did begin to plow fother), and his speech does not betray a strong presence of substrate phenomena.
55. finis: finish (Scots form; rhymes with Innes); see Inglis “English” and, with reverse spelling Cleavish “clevis” (see n. 127).
56. barens: i.e., barrens (prairies or clearings, unforested land).
57. Carson: the Carsons were among the first settlers in the vicinity of what became Greencastle (laid out in 1782), in Antrim township, Cumberland Co. The spelling Willem indicates the Scots pronounciation; see n. 72.
58. shitel: shuttle, an instrument containing thread wound on a bobbin, used in weaving to carry the thread back and forth through the threads that run lengthwise (the warp), thus creating the weft; in the case described here each shuttle used contains a different color of thread, and alternating the shuttles produces striped cloth.
59. hikrey: compare hickory shirt “a coarse and durable shirt worn by laborers, made of heavy twilled cotton with a narrow blue stripe or a check” (OED, s.v. hickory).
60. Willem Willson: William Wilson, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Peters township, Cumberland Co.
61. behind: in arrears, overdue.
62. Lining: i.e., linen (and elsewhere hereafter).
63. to (below also too) clouth: i.e., tow cloth (cloth made from the shorter, lower-quality flax fibers, called “tow” or “hurds,” separated by heckling from the longer, higher-quality fibers, called “line”). The spelling clouth here and cloath below indicates the pronunciation [kloth], which alternates with the more common Scots form claith [kleth].
64. two tim<e>s Lining: i.e., double lining (see n. 65).
65. work of filling: work conjectural (ms. blurred); filling: i.e., fulling, here probably referring to the process of cleaning newly woven cloth, which would normally still contain oils and dirt, by beating it with wooden mallets and washing it with fuller's earth; see Piers Ploughman, B.15.445 (ModE trans. of quotation in OED, s.v. full): “Cloth that comes [directly] from being woven is not fit to wear / until it is fulled.” The expression two tim<e>s lining (i.e., double lining; see n. 64) probably refers to strengthening (lining) the cloth to undergo this process. The spelling filling has its origin in the fact that a preceding [f] often causes [i] to change to [u] in Scots, which allows a reverse spelling of [u] as if it were an original [i].
66. on<e> hors<e> paster: pasturing for one horse; for the significance of the spelling paster see chapter 1, n. 83.
67. mathew paton: Mathew Patton, settled or patented Pennsylvania land in 1737; in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of the Great Cove settlement in Peters township, Cumberland (later Bedford) Co., to the west of the Scots-Irish enclaves at Conococheague Creek.
68. gets: Geddes (a neighbor).
69. J173s 7c C464ch h3s h18d: James mc Coloch his hand.
70. Cafrey: conjectural (ms. blurred).
71. mr James: mr conjectural (ms. blurred).
72. Samul: the spelling shows the loss of [y] before an unstressed vowel in Scots pronunciation: [samyul]→[samul]. The same change has taken place in the Scots form Willem “William” [weelum]; see chapter 1, n. 83.
73. 1 conjectural (ms. blurred).
74. James mc Collogh, Junier: the writer James McCullough's second son.
75. shoaks: i.e., shock, a gathering of sheaves stood upright against each other to dry and ripen. The spelling indicates Scots pronunciation with unlowered vowel (rhymes with oak); see loag “log” hereafter.
76. hey: hay (Scots form, rhymes with high); see n. 22.
77. montmogomerey: a “running” correction from the written form (Montgomery) to the spoken, which has been reshaped to fit the Irish pattern of surnames beginning with M(a)c (as if McGomr(e)y); see the form mcgomeres “Montgomery's” (hereafter).
78. plane: plain white cloth (e.g., below plean wite linen).
79. boot: the difference in value between items exchanged in barter, usually settled with a cash payment (Scots usage). The amount due is said to be “in boot.”
80. back band: i.e., backband (a leather strap or iron chain, used to hold the shafts of a cart or wagon; fits over a pad or “cart saddle” placed on the horse's back).
81. amatick: i.e., a mattock “an agricultural tool used for loosening hard ground, grubbing up trees, etc.”
82. wolat: i.e., wallet (not a billfold but a bag similar to a knapsack).
83. […] bushels of ray: ms. blurred; numeral illegible; ray conjectural.
84. winding: winding cloth, used either for wrapping a corpse or for winnowing.
85. r: i.e., are; one or more words illegible after go.
86. finist ms.
87. moulding: cultivating by covering with earth (“mould”).
88. Skool: i.e., school; also Scol, Scoll, Scull hereafter.
89. Robison: the usual Ulster form of Robinson (pronounced as if spelled “Roabyson” or “Robbyson”). An n between an unstressed vowel and s is regularly lost in Scots; see hereafter Shipistown and Shipestown “Shippensburg”; see also Chrissenmas “Christmas” (pronounced “krissymas”).
90. backon: i.e., bacon.
91. man (i.e., Mahon) conjectural (ms. blurred); see mc mehon, mc meghan hereafter. For the loss of M(a)c see such doublets as Cafrey (hereafter): McCaffrey; El(1)iot(t): mc Ellot (hereafter); Carr: mc C<a>rr (hereafter); Crery: mc Crerie, mc Crere, mc Crery (all hereafter); Enos (foregoing): McGuinness; gouley (i.e., Gawley; hereafter): McGawley.
92. tikin (also tickon, ticken, tick hereafter): tick or ticking (a strong, hard linen or cotton material used to make pillows and mattresses).
93. One word illegible.
94. Cut: quantity of yarn, usually containing 12 hanks (see n. 96); yern: i.e., yarn (Scots form).
95. web: the fabric produced on the loom.
96. hank: a definite length of yarn, varying according to material (e.g., for cotton, 800 yards; for worsted, 560 yards).
97. covring: i.e., covering “cover-cloth, cloth used as a cover”; see the foregoing bed covering.
98. Psalm 89:15, Scottish Psalter, 1650 ed., repr. in The Psalter in Metre, rev. version (London, 1929).
99. Crist[n]en: i.e., christening.
100. Willem tomson: William Thompson, in 1745 a tax collector and in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Hopewell township, Cumberland Co.
101. Ch392y was b56d ye y219 1753: Chirley [i.e., Shirley] was bul<le>d ye year 1753; see n. 38.
102. 748dy J58 - 26 a g921t g5st: Mondy Jun<e> - 26 a great gust (“wind storm, cloudburst”).
103. feading booz…Strenth…marchent: i.e., fading…Boaz…strength…merchant.
104. Several words illegible after saltar; saltar: i.e., psaltar.
105. Ethipone: i.e., Ethiopean.
106. S45 b5ck: Sou (i.e., sow) buck.
107. Enter to: start, begin.
108. o that men…: occurs as verses 8, 15, 21, and 31 of metrical Psalm 107, corresponding to the same verses in the original psalm; see any edition of the Presbyterian Psalter and Church Hymnary. In the King James Bible, the psalm reads: “Oh that men would praise the Lord for his goodness and for his wonderful works to the children of men.”
109. James Linsey: James Lindsay, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Guilford township, Cumberland Co.
110. […] last: first word or numeral illegible; last conjectural (ms. blurred).
111. at his own hand: free, at his own disposal.
112. Adam Armstrong: in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Peters township, Cumberland Co.
113. 1755: last numeral in date conjectural (ms. blurred).
114. John Woods: in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Peters township, Cumberland Co.; killed, along with his wife and mother-in-law, by Indians on 9 November 1756 (see hereafter).
115. torintine: i.e., Torrington.
116. & a half: conjectural (ms. blurred).
117. 7y Ch392y t4k b566 J467 ye 14—1754: my Chirley to<o>k bull Joly ye 14—1754; see n. 38.
118. Dear: i.e., deer.
119. Arter Lockert: Arthur Lockhart; Arter represents the Scots pronunciation of the name.
120. huk: i.e., hook.
121. Coulter: the knife-like part of a plow that cuts the topsoil.
122. Likup: i.e., lick-up, part of the tackle that attaches the horse to the plow; specifically, a clasp fitted to the swingletree to hold the traces.
123. a two hors<e> tree: a swingletree for a two-horse plow.
124. Stepel: i.e., staple or steeple (part of the horse tackle).
125. and: conjectural (ms. blurred).
126. plow pleats: i.e., plow plates, the metal plates that comprise the plowshare and/or the mould board (see hereafter).
127. Cleavish (cleaves hereafter): clevis (a U-shaped piece of iron with a pin or bolt, used to connect a plow with the horse tackle). See n. 55.
128. Shir (also Shear hereafter): [plow]share, the part of the plow that cuts the earth below the top soil; the share is positioned between the coulter and the mould board. (The mould board throws up the soil and casts it to one side.) The spelling shir reflects the Scots pronunciation; see cheer “chair”; the more common Scots term is sock.
129. a Shir onst Lead and mend on the Shoulder: “a share once laid and mended on the shoulder.” When the plow plates, comprised of the plowshare and mould board, become worn with use, the addition of new metal is known as laying; when the new metal is added, the share of mould board is said to be laid. The shoulder is the top edge of the share. The significance of onst (once) is simply that during 1754 laying had to be performed only once. The pattern mend (infinitive) : mend (past passive participle) is modeled on send : send.
130. Colen Spence: Collin Spence, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Peters township, Cumberland Co.
131. Numbers illegible.
132. Deveson: i.e., Davidson (Ulster Scots form).
133. 94b29t 7c C99s: Robert Mc C<a>rrs.
134. Ingens: variant pronunciation of Indians.
135. ye fort at ye meting hous: Fort Steele, commanded by Rev. John Steele (1716-1779), Ulster-born pastor of McCullough's Upper West Conococheague Presbyterian church (“meeting house”).
136. Cornel Denbar and his Armey…: after the French and Indians defeated General Braddock's army near Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) on 9 July 9 1755, Colonel Thomas Dunbar led the surviving soldiers eastward through the Conococheague settlement to Philadelphia. Dunbar's retreat exposed the Pennsylvania frontier to the merciless attacks that followed. henrey poulens: Henry Pauling (or Pawling), in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Antrim township, Cumberland Co.
137. great Cove…ma<r>sh Creek: the Indians' massacre of the Scots-Irish settlers at Great Cove (see n. 67), just west of Conococheague, panicked McCullough and most of his neighbors. The Scots-Irish settlement at Marsh Creek was about 35 miles east of Conococheague, across the South Mountain in present-day Adams (then York) County. James McCullough may have sought shelter with a relation, as a Samuel McCullough had farmed at Marsh Creek since 1741.
138. John Creag: John Craig, in 1753 settled on land in Peters township.
139. Anttetem: on this occasion McCullough's family fled southward to the Scots-Irish settlement on Antietam Creek, near the Maryland-Pennsylvania line.
140. Welingers: i.e., willying gears (gears of a willying machine, a device for cleaning wool, flax, or cotton).
141. Shafts: part of a loom; the shafts each lift or depress one half of the warp threads so that the shuttle carrying the weft threads can be thrown across the warp.
142. Wolen Reed: i.e., wooling reed; in a loom, the reed is an iron bar across which the warp is threaded; the reed regulates the space between threads, thus allowing fine or coarse weaving. A wooling reed is one specifically used for weaving woolens.
143. puley Stocks: i.e., pulley stocks (the cases and wheels through and over which the ropes are threaded).
144. Reck: i.e., rick (large stack of hay, wheat, corn, etc.). The spelling reflects the Ulster lowering of i to e or a.
145. prato: potato; the spelling may reflect either prata or pratay or prato (see the varying Scots pronunciations of window: windo, wanday, winda. furr: furrow (Scots form).
146. Stubel: i.e., stubble.
147. McCullough's failure to provide John with a surname suggests that the murdered man was a close relative; however, the author of one, old published transcript of this part of the diary substituted Watson for Was, perhaps basing his change on other local records or memories.
148. Canagogige: Conococheague.
149. Weep ye not for the dead…nor see his native country: according to viewers of the diary in the early twentieth century, this passage from Jeremiah 12:10 was written by McCullough immediately following the entry noting his children's capture by the Indians. Today, the page on which the passage was written is missing, as are many others, from the diary. The passage was also underscored in the McCullough family Bible.
150. putmock (also putomock hereafter): i.e. Potomac.
151. burring: i.e., burying “burial.”
152. Croper: i.e., cropper (tenant farmer or farmer on commission).
153. patrick mc intire (also mctire, McIntire, McTier hereafter): Patrick McIntire, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Antrim township, Cumberland Co.
154. mc Dowels fort: built by John McDowell at the site of his mill in Peters township, Cumberland Co.; in 1754 its fortifications were improved by Lt. Col. John Armstrong of the Pennsylvania Militia. Many of the “forts” mentioned in McCullough's journal were not constructed by the British or by the Pennsylvania government, as was Fort McDowell, but instead were small, ephemeral, and privately built blockhouses.
155. 39th ms.
156. S48…Car8ell Chambers fort: Son…Carnell (i.e. Colonel) Chambers fort: a private fort built by the Antrim-born Benjamin Chambers, one of the first settlers west of the Susquehanna, and the site of the future Chambersburg.
157. John marlen: John Morlan, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Peters township, Cumberland Co.
158. 11: conjectural (ms. blurred).
159. mager: i.e., Major.
160. treavel: i.e., travel; spelling indicates Scots pronunciation (travyl or trevl).
161. John marten: John Martin, in 1751 a taxable in Peters township; in 1771 a taxable at Little Cove, Cumberland (later Bedford) Co.
162. Canadeqnet: Conodoguinet (or Candoquinette) Creek.
163. paxton: Paxton township, Lancaster (later Dauphin) Co.; see chapter 19.
164. David Stoner: a German settler in the Conococheagues; ancestor of the present owner of McCullough's diary.
165. This entry and that of 1 July 1757 indicate that McCullough and his family fled eastward a second time to the Marsh Creek settlement, where William McCreary had lived since 1740. However, this was their third move in all, as they had fled to Antietam on 19 April 1756 (see earlier).
166. the Reagelors…herrices ferrey: Regulars (British soldiers). This was the vanguard of General John Forbes' British army, marching to the frontier from Lancaster (Langkester), across the Susquehanna at Harris's Ferry (herrices ferrey; the future Harrisburg), and on to Carlisle (Carlile hereafter; see entry of 22 June 1757) and beyond. Eventually, the presence of these troops would sharply reduce French and Indian attacks in the Cumberland Valley, but the main British campaign did not get underway until July 1758. The spelling Reagelors reflects the loss of [y] before an unstressed vowel, as in jointure [joyntyoor] → joynter [joyntur] (chapter 1, n. 83).
167. Shipistown: Shippensburg, Pa. For the significance of the spelling, see n. 89.
168. James Haledy: James Holiday, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Peters township, Cumberland Co.
169. Quitapahcaley: Quitapahilla (or Quetapahely) Creek, in Lancaster Co.
170. batto men: i.e., batteau men “boatmen.”
171. Shimoko: the Indian “capital,” on the Susquehanna, below the mouth of the North Branch; near the present site of Sunbury.
172. St21t62y t4k b566 Ju8 ye 16th 1757: Steatley (i.e., Stately) to<o>k bull Jun<e> ye 16th 1757; see n. 38.
173. ye time: while.
174. See n. 166.
175. Alexander miller: in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Antrim township, Cumberland Co.
176. Words scratched out between and and killed.
177. fort Litteltown: Fort Littleton (or Lytleton), at Sugar Cabins, Cumberland Co.
178. W36627 7c C9292s: Will<i>am Mc Creres (McCreary's).
179. trents: conjectural (ms. blurred).
180. Clapems fort: Clapham's Fort; probably named after Col. William Clapham of the Pennsylvania Militia.
181. B93862 t4k b566: Brin<d>le (cow) to<o>k bull; see n. 38. McCullough's coded spelling (Brinle) reflects the Scots preservation of the cluster [nl]; see kennle “candle.”
182. dr<i>ven: i.e., driving.
183. Croses fort: Cross's Fort, in the Conococheague settlement.
184. ye trak: the Tract. The spelling shows the Scots loss of final t following a consonant; see effeck “effect,” attemp “attempt.”
185. mr Sinkeys Congregation: the Irish-born Rev. Richard Sankey (1736-1790); in 1737-1760 his Presbyterian congregations were located at the Hanover church, on Manada Creek, and at the Old Stone church at Carlisle, Cumberland Co. Sinkey is a reverse spelling based on the Ulster lowering of i to e or a; cf. sank/senk “sink.”
186. bigers gape: Bigger's Gap.
187. diney gall: Donegal township, Lancaster Co. The spelling represents the Scots pronunciation of Donegal, which of course is also the westernmost county in Ulster.
188. Staking grean: i.e., stacking grain.
189. Several words illegible after Woven.
190. opickin: Opequon, a Scots-Irish and German settlement in the northern (lower) end of Virginia's Shenandoah Valley.
191. Samul gettey: Samuel Getty, settled at Marsh Creek in 1739.
192. Perhaps to be read as then <I> Receved two bushels of Ray from Willem Boyl <in return for> 2 days <work/help> at rasing ye barn.
193. Sor<e>: severe.
194. Willem moore: William Moore, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Peters township, Cumberland Co.
195. gouley: (Mc)Gawley; conjectural (ms. blurred); for the spelling see poulen (Pauling/Pawling) earlier.
196. had d48 7456ding C498 Ju8 ye - 15: had don<e> moulding Corn Jun<e> ye - 15.
197. yealou bretches: Yellow Breeches Creek; the spelling bretches reflects the Ulster lowering of i to e or a.
198. gelledy: i.e., Gildea.
199. J58: Jun<e>.
200. Robert Erven: Robert Erwin (or Irvine), in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Antrim township, Cumberland Co. John Jeck: John Jack, in 1751 a taxable inhabitant of Hopewell township, Cumberland Co.
201. purshued: pursued; Scots form.
202. Swatara: Creek and township, also Fort Swatara near Swatara Gap, in Lancaster Co.
203. Will of James McCullough, signed 2 May 1778 (Will Book A, p. 66, in Kittochtinny Historical Society, Chambersburg, Pa.; courtesy of Lillian Colletta). Whatsens body of devinity: A Body of Practical Divinity: Consisting of Above One Hundred Seventy Six Sermons on the Lesser Catechism Composed by the Reverend Assembly of Divines at Westminster: with a Supplement of Some Sermons on Several Texts of Scripture (London, 1692), by Thomas Watson (d. 1686), an English Presbyterian divine, who at the Restoration (1660) was ejected from his church, St. Stephen's, Walbrook, for Nonconformity, although in 1672 he regained a preaching license. Revised editions of Watson's most famous work were published as late as 1855 under the title A Body of Divinity. ¶Browns Explanation of the Romans: An Explanation of the Epistle to the Romans (1679), by Thomas Brown (1610?-1679); born in Kirkudbright, Scotland, from 1655 Brown was minister of Wamphray in Annandale, in Dumfriesshire, but in 1662 he was arrested and banished for opposing Charles II's interference in Presbyterian church affairs; exiled in Holland, Brown became minister of the Scots church in Rotterdam.
1. See chapter 6.
3. On Hannah Wright, see chapter 25.
4. Mary Cumming, Liverpool, England, to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 30 August 1811. Strawberry Hill, the Craig family home, actually lay about a mile outside Lisburn, on the Co. Down side of the Lagan River, which separates Antrim from Down.
5. See chapter 44.
6. Lisburn town is located on the Co. Antrim side of the parish of Blaris (or Lisburn), which is divided between Co. Antrim's Upper Massereene barony and the baronies of Lower Iveagh (Upper Half) and Upper Castlereagh in Co. Down. For demographic data on Blaris parish and its environs, see appendix 2.1c, chapter 45. Quotation cited in J. Irvine, ed., Mary Cumming's Letters Home… , 28; see Sources, chapter 45.
7. Between 1790 and 1820 Baltimore's population rose from 13,503 to 62,738, and before the War of 1812 the city surpassed Philadelphia and rivaled New York in prosperity and trade with Europe and the West Indies.
8. Mary Cumming, 30 August 1811.
9. Mary Cumming, Camden Town, London, to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 7 September 1811.
10. Mary Cumming, New York City, to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, [8 November 1811].
11. Robert Dickey was a native of Ballymena, Co. Antrim; his brother, James Dickey, had been less fortunate, forfeiting his life on the gallows for his involvement with the United Irishmen and the 1798 Rebellion. Quotation from J. Irvine, ed., Mary Cumming's Letters Home… , 41; see Sources, chapter 45.
12. Rev. William Sinclair: a graduate of the University of Glasgow (1775), in 1785 he was ordained as Presbyterian minister of Newtownards, Co. Down; Sinclair was associated with other New Light and nonsubscribing clergymen in the Presbytery of Antrim, and in the 1790s he became a major figure among Co. Down's United Irishmen; in 1798 Sinclair was found guilty of treason and transported to America, sailing on the same ship that carried John Caldwell of Ballymoney (see chapter 68); because of Sinclair's doctrinal liberalism and political radicalism, he was “embargoed” by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States; however, the Presbytery of Baltimore accepted him, and he spent the rest of his life ministering to a congregation in that city, as did another United Irish exile, the Rev. John Glendy from Maghera, Co. Derry.
13. Mary Cumming, Petersburg, Va., to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 25 November and 6 December 1811.
14. the young men: William Cumming's two clerks.
15. plate: dinner utensils or vessels made of silver.
16. Mary Cumming, 25 November 1811.
17. Mary Cumming, Petersburg, Va., to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 24 February 1812.
18. Mary Cumming, 25 November 1811.
19. J. G. Scott and E. A. Wyatt III, Petersburg's Story… , 100; see Sources, chapter 45. Mary Cumming, 6 December 1811.
20. Scott and Wyatt, 42.
22. Mary Cumming, 6 December 1811.
23. Mary Cumming, Petersburg, Va., to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 9 January 1812.
24. William and Mary Cumming, Petersburg, Va., to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 2 May 1812.
25. Mary Cumming, Petersburg, Va., to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 26 May 1812.
26. Mary Cumming, 30 August 1811.
27. Mary Cumming, Petersburg, Va., to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 24 June 1812.
28. It is intriguing that, despite her own Ulster childhood during the 1790s, and despite her family's close ties to former United Irishmen, in none of her letters did Mary Cumming ever allude to the 1798 rebellion, even when she encountered its exiles in America. Since she wrote freely and informatively on other political issues, her reticence cannot be ascribed to conventional gender roles but rather to the loyalism of her own immediate family (one of her brothers-in-law was a Church of Ireland minister) or, more broadly, to the self-imposed silence on the subject that characterized much of Ulster Presbyterian society after 1798.
29. Mary Cumming, Blandford, Va., to Rev. Andrew Craig and Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 29 January 1813.
30. Mary Cumming, Blandford, Va., to Rev. Andrew Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 20 December 1813.
31. Cited in J. G. Scott and E. A. Wyatt III, Petersburg's Stoy… , 24, 41; see Sources, chapter 45.
32. Mary Cumming, Blandford, Va., to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 17 November 1812.
33. Mary Cumming, Blandford, Va., to Margaret Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 7-14 November 1813.
34. Mary Cumming, 7-14 November 1813. Mercury, of course, is lethally poisonous.
35. packet: package or parcel (of letters).
36. Major Taylor: George Keith Taylor, Petersburg's leading attorney and a Virginia state legislator. His wife (Mrs. Taylor hereafter), a sister of the U.S. chief justice John Marshall (1755-1835), was primarily responsible for establishing the local Female Orphan Asylum.
37. figure: dance movement.
38. cotillion: a dance of French origin, now a variety of quadrille.
39. Mrs. Moore: in her letter of 6 December 1811, Mary Cumming had described Mrs. Moore as an Irishwoman who, although she had lived 20 years in America, was still “completely Irish in her manners, which I like very much. She is a great, large, fat, bouncing-looking woman, appears to be prefectly good-natured, and extremely obliging to me indeed, but I come from Ireland, and that is my recommendation with Mrs. Moore.… She is a complete national character.”
40. cartel: a ship commissioned in time of war to exchange prisoners.
41. James Cumming: William's brother, who had left Petersburg and returned to Ireland shortly after Mary and her husband arrived in Virginia.
42. make: profit by.
43. largely: widely, heavily.
44. got: commanded, sold for.
45. sensible: endowed with good sense, intelligent, judicious; also, possessed of sensibility (“romantic”).
46. desirous: (socially) desirable “eligible.”
47. gig: a light two-wheeled one-horse carriage.
48. about: engaged in, “up to.”
49. J.C.: James Craig, Mary's younger brother, who was studying law at Trinity College, Dublin.
50. the volunteers: i.e., the officers and members of Petersburg's militia company.
51. the democrats: i.e., local leaders of the Republican party.
52. strip: expose/bare a fair amount of flesh (see very low hereafter).
53. sarsnet: var. of sarcenet: a soft thin silk of oriental origin.
54. it is not to be had with you: it is not available where you are (i.e. in Ireland).
55. figured: patterned.
56. Lord Wellington: Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852), of Dangan Castle, Co. Meath: victorious general in the Napoleonic Wars, first duke of Wellington, and Tory prime minister (1827-1830) during the crisis over Catholic emancipation, which he opposed; his more liberal elder brother, Richard Colley, Lord Wellesley (1760-1842), was governor-general of India in 1797-1805 and Ireland's lord lieutenant in 1820-1828 and 1832-1834.
57. are at a short for: lack an adequate supply of.
58. tippet: a shoulder cape of fur or cloth.
59. pelisse: a long cloak or coat made, lined, or trimmed with fur.
60. draw: in tatting (see n. 61) to pull on the thread to cause the stitching to form into a ring.
61. tatting: a kind of knotted lace, used for edging or trimming.
62. Mary Cumming, Blandford, Va., to Margaret Craig Ward, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 4 June 1814 (in March 1814 Mary's sister, Margaret, had married James Ward of Lisburn).
63. Mary Cumming, Springfield, Md., to Rev. Andrew Craig, Strawberry Hill, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 14 October 1814 (Springfield was the rural suburb of Baltimore where Alexander Brown's country home was located).
64. Mary Cumming, 14 October 1814.
65. Mary Cumming, Baltimore, Md., to Margaret Craig Ward, Lisburn, Co. Antrim, 9 February 1815.
66. This letter is a contemporary transcript of Mary Cumming's letter, made by her brother James.
67. “Go to our beloved country,” Mary Cumming had written to her husband, in her last letter of 24 March 1815; “there you will find peace. Talk to my beloved friends of me. Tell them we will all meet in a better world. If I can I will hover round and bless you wherever you go.”
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